Folk omens help gardeners


Signs are true - not superstitious

"Try to observe various signs.
The shepherd and agriculture in infantile years,
Looking up to the heavens, to the western shadow,
They know how to predict both the wind and a clear day,
And the rains in May, I will delight the young fields ... "

A.S. Pushkin


Our whole life is inextricably linked with the weather (or, perhaps, it would be more correct to say, with Nature). Life has become such that we are all in a hurry, afraid to be late. Or maybe it's worth slowing down, looking around and taking a closer look at the phenomena of Nature. After all, everyone is interested to know what awaits us tomorrow: in summer - rain or hot dry weather, in winter - thaw or severe frost? Being on our personal plot, we do not always manage to find out the weather forecast in order to rationally plan tomorrow.

For example, in the growing season, every gardener or gardener wants to be more clear about what agricultural activities can be done the next day, or maybe go fishing, go to the forest for mushrooms and berries, or just go on a long hike. And another time - in winter - when visiting a summer cottage, you want to plan in advance tomorrow's ski trip so that it does not turn out to be "smeared" by a strong thaw.

A forecast for many days ahead (for the next month or even a season) can help us choose the most optimal timing for planting crops, carry out measures to protect plants from pests, diseases and frost, and even calculate the future harvest.

The Slavs, who have been engaged in agriculture from time immemorial, were very dependent on the whims of nature, therefore they tried to notice even its insignificant fluctuations, patterns and relationships with the development and harvest of plants. This was important for the farmer, since his well-being depended on what kind of harvest Nature would answer him. His desire to look into the future to determine what awaits him there is understandable.

In their labor activity, people for many hundreds of years accumulated experience, compared causes and effects, generalized their observations, knowledge and skills, which were passed on from generation to generation until everything collected acquired a completely finished meaning and greatly facilitated the struggle for existence.

The practical wisdom of the masses was reflected in many reliable signs-observations about the weather, which contained weather and harvest predictions both for a specific day, month or season, and for the whole year ahead. According to the famous Russian historian V.O. Klyuchevsky, "they covered all the characteristic, often subtle phenomena of the annual turnover of our nature, noted its various accidents (climatic and economic), outlining the entire annual life of the peasant economy."

In world folklore literature, more than 100 thousand signs have been published, there are about 6100 various Russian signs. For better memorization, many signs of the oral folk calendar-folklore - peasants tied to the names of saints, clothed them in jokes and proverbs, often in poetic form.

You can even say that calendar signs are a memorable book of observations over Nature, a diary of the thoughts of a Russian person over his life - being, a kind of folk encyclopedia of a farmer. In the folk calendar, the smallest fluctuations of nature were noted (the timing of flowering and ripening of many cultivated and forest trees, the arrival and departure of birds, seasonal phenomena and much more).

The history of observing the weather, its predictions for the future harvest, are rooted in antiquity, when since primitive times people watched the rising and setting of the sun, the starry sky, and the winds. So, in the Kiev State Historical Museum there is an ancient Slavic calendar, applied to an earthen jug of the 4th century, where the most important dates for the farmer are marked - the days of the beginning of sowing and harvesting.

By the way, by the time of the adoption of Christianity, Ancient Russia was using a lunisolar calendar, and the year itself began on March 1, when they started agricultural work. The richest material of centuries-old observations, thanks to the observation and experience of people of different generations, allowed them to determine the weather for tomorrow and choose the best dates for planting crops, rationally plan and spend their time.

Of course, signs can help us in solving many life issues related to the weather, but they may not always come true. According to experts, the so-called calendar signs - dates (Christmas, Tatiana's day, etc.) are less objective, the results of observations of heavenly bodies, physical phenomena of inanimate nature (rainbow, fog, lightning, etc.) and for the behavior of the animal and plant world, giving clearer predictions.

First of all, one must remember that one should not be guided by only one omen. The more signs (it is necessary to take at least 4-5) show a specific nature of the weather change, the higher our forecast will be. If these indications are still somewhat contradictory, the forecast is made according to most of the similar signs.

And although on radio and television we daily hear the opinion of weather forecasters about the weather for two, three days, a week ahead, let's take a closer look at folk signs, the interest in which is still unabated.

We add that we are probably still very lucky that we live at latitudes where four wonderful and incomparable seasons are so clearly expressed - winter, spring, summer and autumn, each of which has its own characteristics and signs. By the way, I have friends who have been keeping almost daily records of weather and temperature for more than a dozen years, so those who are interested in the last moment should bear in mind that such observations should be carried out regularly, preferably focusing on the same area.

K. Leonov,
biologist


Origins, beautiful and romantic legends about the flower

One of them is about the love of a beautiful forest fairy and a young shepherd. She was kind, beautiful and sympathetic. She treated with plants, animals and people. People came to her for help from afar, and no one knew the refusal. Once she saw a young shepherd in the meadow, the girl smiled and realized that she had fallen in love with him. At first she did not reveal herself, she quietly watched, listened to the play on the pipe.

And when she went out to the young man, she understood from her eyes that a mutual feeling had arisen. The fairy taught the shepherd a lot, introduced him to the secrets of healing, useful herbs. He began to heal people and became rich, as he took money for it. They spun his head. The young man abandoned his flock, meadow and forgot about the fairy.

And she continued to wait for her beloved and cried bitterly, not seeing him. Her tears on the ground turned into chamomile flowers, and the beautiful fairy melted with grief. But the shepherd was also losing his strength.

And when he could not heal at all, he remembered about his beloved, but it was too late. The shepherd returned, and saw only a large chamomile field. Since that time, white flowers have been helping people with their healing powers in memory of the fairies' faithful and disinterested love for a simple shepherd.


How to grow green manure

Any plant in a summer cottage needs fertilization every season in order to be able to get rich greens, colorful flowering and a harvest of ripe fruits. However, it is not always possible to use expensive additives, since experienced gardeners and gardeners have long been familiar with green manure plants. They are of great benefit to the soil and help crops grow.

The benefits of green manure

In addition, green manure is a food for numerous bacteria and worms, thanks to which the soil becomes of high quality. There is an opinion that these plants are the best helpers for gardeners. It is even better not to dig them up, because there may be violations of the fertile layer and beneficial microorganisms die. To make these plants a fertilizer, it is enough to mow them at the root and spill them with a special solution with effective microorganisms.

Use of siderates

Siderata are grown not just as a common plant, but for the future benefit of the land and crops on which they will grow. They are also used to obtain humus, which can only form in moist soil. Therefore, your garden dries up quickly, then cut plants need to be moistened with water. Siderata should be applied on time, otherwise they will become useless. When budding begins, and flowering has not yet come, you need to cut off the part of the plant that is above the ground and use it for useful purposes. Otherwise, you can wait for tough stems that will feed on the nutrients of the fertile soil. It is important to use natural green manures from quality seeds, otherwise they can adversely affect the life of worms and microorganisms that will process them.

Selection of green manure

It is very difficult, since it is necessary to take into account the quality of the soil, acidity, composition and variety of the grown plants. It is necessary to select green manure for each crop separately, a combination of several is also possible.

The cruciferous family. The presented category includes rape, mustard, spring and winter rape, oil radish. The use of plants of this group supplies the beds with sulfur and phosphorus, loosens and structures the soil.

Legume family - these are clover, alfalfa, broad beans, different varieties of peas, white and blue lupine, spring and winter vetch. With their help, nitrogen enters the soil and its maximum loosening occurs. Alfalfa and clover are also used as forage crops and honey plants. Also, the area with their sowing must be limited, because they are rapidly growing perennials.

The family of cereals - these are wheat, rye, oats and sorghum. This category increases the proportion of potassium in the soil, loosens it and inhibits many types of weeds. If rye is used, wind and water erosion of the soil can be prevented.

Other families - these are phacelia, nasturtium and sweet clover - undemanding plants that can also help with various problems in the garden.

Planting green manure

It is advisable to plant in the spring before planting the seedlings. Recently, sowing is possible both in summer and autumn. In the summer - to provide the garden with an additional mulch layer and fertilizer, in the fall - for spring pruning, so that a fertile soil layer quickly forms. The most suitable are vetch, rye and mustard. If planted in the spring, you can get the most out of your soil. In addition, planting seedlings directly together with green manure will save it from the sultry rays of the sun and possible nighttime temperature drops. When green manure will shade cultivated plants, it is better to cut them and use them for mulching the beds.

Siderata, which are sown in spring. Usually, more than one sowing is used during the warm season, in order to constantly have greens for fertilization and mulching. But the first sowing always falls in the spring and the most suitable are:

- Spring vetch is an excellent predecessor for the garden beds where peppers will be grown. They must be cut 12-14 days before planting seedlings in the soil.

- spring rape. Sown in March-April, and cut after 35-45 days

- rape. Sowing is carried out at the same time as spring rape, since it is better to cut it after 45-60 days

- Phacelia is an excellent precursor for any vegetable crops, it is cut approximately 50 days after planting

- mustard - the best precursor for potatoes and root vegetables (do not mix with cruciferous plants). Cut off after 35-45 days.

Growing green manure today is not only popular, but also very expedient.


Folk signs of planting a vegetable garden. When and what to plant

Folk signs of planting a vegetable garden suggested what and when to plant. How many years we have been sitting on them, they have never failed.

Folk omens have always helped gardeners in planting seeds and seedlings. In recent years, the weather has become unpredictable, therefore, it is better to check the sowing dates by nature. So, today, we invite you to familiarize yourself with such signs in order to get a rich harvest.


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Mistakes of novice gardeners

In the early years, novice gardeners make the most common mistakes. They rush to plant unknown seedlings and seeds in an unprepared area, in unfertilized soil.To avoid this, there is no need to rush, you need to study everything, think over, plan and only after that start acting.

When placing plants on the site, the depth of groundwater is not taken into account, plants are planted that cannot live in such conditions. It is necessary to familiarize yourself with the area and determine what species can be grown in these areas.

When planting trees and shrubs, pits are prepared immediately before planting, which often causes the death of plants after a few years, that is, they lose years. It must be firmly remembered that for almost all breeds, planting pits and sowing beds, areas are prepared in advance so that the necessary processes go through in the soil, preparing the opportunity to take a plant to this place.

When planting trees, the root collar of the seedlings is deepened, which causes the bark at the base of the trunk to undergo podoprevanie and the death of the tree in 3-4 years. You need to know that apple, pear, cherry, plum, raspberry, rowan are those species, the root collar of which, when planting, should be at the level of the soil surface.

Sometimes seedlings are transported over distances with foliage and do not cover the roots. It is unacceptable. The leaves must be removed, the roots are well covered with moist material, and if the roots are dry, they must be immersed in water for 1-2 days so that they gain moisture.

When planting plants, the need for a pollinator is not taken into account. For fruits, cucumbers and tomatoes, this is a very important condition. You need to know which varieties are better pollinated by which varieties.

Very often, plantings are thickened, thereby reducing the yield and creating conditions for pests and diseases. All garden plants need good lighting. It is better to plant less than more.

Saplings and seeds are purchased from random traders who often sell wild or hybrids. It is more profitable to purchase planting material in state nurseries, where it is under control.

Inexperienced gardeners strive to plant a seedling 3-5 years old, hoping that it will bear fruit faster. This is a misconception. The best fruit seedlings are two-year old and one-year old. Older seedlings get sick for a long time, they do not accelerate fruiting, but often die, since during digging most of the root system remains in the old place, the crown is large, but there are so few roots that they are not able to provide the crown, and it dries up. The seedlings should be well formed with a developed root system.

During watering, too much water is poured into the trunk of mature trees. This is irrational, since there are no suction roots near the stem, they are under the crown projection, therefore, watering must be carried out in circular ditches or pits at a certain distance from the stem.


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